Calvert, C. "Hate Speech and Its Harms: A Communication Theory Perspective." Journal of Communication 47.1 (1997): 4-19. Web.
Coleman, Arthur L., and Jonathon R. Alger. "Beyond Speech Codes: Harmonizing Rights of Free Speech and Freedom from Discrimination on University Campuses." Law Journal Library 95 (1996): n. pag. Web. 5 Nov. 2014. <http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/jcolunly23&div=7&g_sent=1&collection=journals#107>.
Cowan, G. and Hodge, C. (1996), Judgments of Hate Speech: The Effects of Target Group, Publicness, and Behavioral Responses of the Target. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26: 355–374. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1996.tb01854.x
Gould, Jon B. Speak No Evil: The Triumph of Hate Speech Regulation. Chicago: U of Chicago, 2005. Print.
Hentoff, Nat. "“Speech Codes” On The Campus And Problems Of Free Speech." Dissent 38 (1991): 546-49. Web. 5 Nov. 2014. <http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/jcolunly23&div=7&g_sent=1&collection=journals>
Sherry, Suzanna. "Speaking of Virtue: A Republican Approach to University Regulation of Hate Speech." Minnesota Law Journal 935 (1991): 933-44. Law Journal Library. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/mnlr75&div=38&g_sent=1&collection=journals#945>
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Smolla, Rodney A. "Academic Freedom, Hate Speech, and the Idea of a University." Law and Contemporary Problems 53.3, Freedom and Tenure in the Academy: The Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1940 Statement of Principles (1990): 195-225. JSTOR. Web. 06 Nov. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/1191797?ref=no-x-route:a3adc635046c4a57c9eb34bbb1706643>.
Calvert explored the long and short-term detrimental effects of hate speech on victims. This information proved helpful in providing background information for my research and why Emory students should think carefully about speech codes and what they mean to prevent.
This article explored the basic question surrounding hate speech codes: When does the guarantee of equal protection under the law as described in the 14th Amendment trump the freedom of speech protected in the First Amendment? From here, I was able to form a new research proposal that sought to answer this question through majority opinions.
This source served as an example of a real-world survey directed at college students that observed their reactions to hate speech scenarios that target different minority groups. By modeling some of the experimental procedure/scenarios, I will be able to create a understandable survey that leads to meaningful data.
In the last chapter of this book, Gould describes David Horowitz's public conflicts with campus speech codes involving an article he wrote against reparations for slavery. Since part of my research involves looking into Emory's history with speech codes, this book seemed especially useful.
In this often cited scholarly article, Hentoff makes a convincing case against speech codes. He also recognizes the important racial disparity in support for the codes. This article motivated me to account for demography in my investigations.
This article was helpful because it described hate speech regulation as the university's way of coercing virtue. Instead of simply regulating manners, speech codes serve to actively instill specific values in their students. Sherry provided a new lens through which I could examine my issue and construct my survey questions.
This book from the Emory law section of the library was helpful in describing the different court cases that have shaped the legal debate around hate speech. Despite the continuous rulings of unconstitutionality regarding public (and even private) university speech codes prevail. He also lays out the basic arguments used by opponents and proponents.
In this article, Smolla discusses the university's place as a public forum. She also gives examples of certain designated areas on other campuses that serve as an arena for free speech. Going from there, I began to wonder if students at Emory feel like the campus is a public forum, or if the quad or Asbury Circle are appropriate areas for public speech.